What is applied mathematics? An acceptable answer might be: mathematics in the service of matters that are exterior to mathematics itself. In that service, the question of logical proof or truth or finality is not really an issue; what matters is utility or significance, in some shape or form, to a sufficiently large group of people. With this criterion in mind, one can assert that Cardano's astrology constituted a non-negligible chapter in the history of applied mathematics.
by Philip J. Davis, in review of the book: Cardano's Cosmos: The Worlds and Works of a Renaissance Astrologer, by Anthony Grafton, Harvard University Press, 1999, 352 pages

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